Lexical error in E.F.L.: a cross linguistic study.

Lexical error in E.F.L.: a cross linguistic study

Lexical error in E.F.L.: a cross linguistic study

This proposed study deals with how learners acquire a language, on lexicon acquisition, differences and relations between first and second language. Based on the main works in this research field such as those of Chomsky, Aitchison and Nation.

This dissertation gives an account of the language acquisition of English Foreign Learners (EFL), in particular Italians. It dwells on the difficulties of learning a new language, on the influence of L1 on L2 and on the lexicon acquisition, bearing in mind how these concepts are linked to the notion of transfer. In fact, the latter is the most important link that connects all the chapters, therefore it is mentioned first, followed by the transfer that occurs in SLA (second language acquisition) which then leads to the case study.

The dissertation is made up of three chapters. The first one provides an explanation on language acquisition. It is divided in two sections. The first one is focused on language acquisition and on brain areas linked to language and memory. I investigated the nurture-nature debate and several theories on first and second language acquisition, focussing on Chomsky, Skinner and Emergentism. In the second section, I explained the concept of interlanguage and transfer. The latter is taken into account also in the following chapters. The second chapter is based on lexicon, I illustrated lexicon acquisition in L1 and lexicon learning in L2 and the differences between them. Moreover, I investigated two methods of learning vocabulary in the second language. The third and last chapter is composed of two parts. The first one is centred on Error Analysis, Contrastive analysis hypothesis and errors committed by EFL. The second part is the most important, in which the research study I made in the field of SLA is explained.

The case study.

I attended several classes at a secondary school, where I investigated how children learn another language. Initially, I proceeded in observing the students and recording their errors, focusing only on lexical ones. At a later stage, I gave the students a test made up of three different exercises to evaluate their lexicon knowledge, inspired by Nation tests, such as the “word association test” (WAT). It is a specific exercise using the lexicon aimed at evaluating the knowledge of the students.

Through a qualitative research, I investigated lexical errors, noticed the influence of their first language (Italian) on the target language (English), student’s limits and the transfer issue.  I chose to investigate and concentrated my research on errors, because errors made by students represent an important starter point in the development of the language.  In fact, errors show the teacher evidence of how students (young or adult) are learning and by analysing them one might well determine the procedure and strategies used by learners.

From the findings of my dissertation appears that errors are caused both by a lack of knowledge and by a lack of logic of students. It can be noticed that when Italian learners understand the meaning of a given English word, they cannot use it properly. Moreover, it can be observed that students make more error when they meet the so called “false friends”, English words that sounds like Italian ones, but have a different meaning.

Bibliografia:

  • Aitchison J.  (1987) Words in the Mind, Cambridge University Press
  • ID., (1983) The articulate mammal. An introduction to psycholinguistics. Hutchinson   Education;
  • Anderson D. (2005) Adult language learning;
  • Bates E. & Mac Whinney B. (s.d.) Competition, Variation and Language Learning (157-190);
  • Bettoni C. (2001) Imparare un’altra lingua; 
  • Carriò-Pastor M.L., Mestre-Mestre E.M. (2014) Lexical errors in second language scientific writing; some conceptual implications.  IJES, vol 14(1), pp 97-108. Clark E. V. (1993) The Lexicon in Acquisition.  Cambridge University press;
  • Chomsky N. (2006) Language and mind.  Cambridge University Press;
  • Cook V. (s.d.) Some key issues for SLA research;
  • David B. Pisoni, Howard C. Nusbaum, Paul A. Luce, Louisa M. Slowiaczek (1985) Speech     Perception, Word Recognition and the Structure of the Lexicon; 4(1-3):75-95
  • De Groot A. M.B. & Kroll J.F. K. (1997) Tutorials Bilingualism. Psycholinguistic Perspectives;
  • Dulay, Burten, Krashen (1982) Language Two. Oxford university press;
  • Gass S.M and Selinker (1994) Second language acquisition. An introductory course;
  • Ghaemi F. & Haghani M.  Journal of Language and Culture Vol. 2(11). pp. 194-20       November 2011, “The competition model: From language processing to pedagogical    implications”;
  • Hamman C. (1986) Language Acquisition; 
  • Hauser M.D., Chomsky N., Fithc W.T. (2002) The faculty of Language: what is it, who has it, and how did it evolve?  Science VOL 298 pp 1569-1579;
  • Jiang N. Lexical (2000) ‘Representation and Development in a second language.’ Oxford University Press Applied Linguistics 21/1: 47-77;
  • Jakobovits L.A. and Murray S.M. (1967) ‘A review of B.F. Skinner’s Verbal Behavior’ (pp 142-143);
  • Khansir A.A. (2012) Error Analysis and Second Language Acquisition Theory and Practise in Language Studies, Vol.2 No5 pp 1023-1032;
  • ID., (2012) ‘Error Analysis and Second Language Acquisition’. In Theory and     Practice in language Studies, (2) 5, 1027-1032;
  • Langendoen T.D. Linguistic Theory published in Bechtel, William, and Graham, George, eds.: A Companion to Cognitive Science (Oxford: Blackwell), pp. 235-244, 1998;
  • Lété B. (2003). Building the mental lexicon by exposure to print: A corpus-based analysis of French reading books. In P. Bonin (Ed.), Mental lexicon. “Some words to talk about words” (pp. 187-214);
  • Lightbown & Spada (2013) How languages are learned. Oxford University Press;
  • Llach M.P.A. (2011) Lexical Errors and Accuracy in English Language Writing (pp 3-20);
  • MacWhinney B. In S. Gass and A. Mackey (Eds.) (2013). Handbook of Second Language Acquisition – New York: Routledge, pp. 211-227 “The logic of the Unified Model” MacWhinney (2002) The Competition Model: the Input, the Context, and the Brain. MacWhinney (1987) Competition and Lexical Categorization;
  • Mochi S. (2008) ‘Linguistics and the Lexicon in Second Language Acquisition.’  In Perspective,    Volume XXXV, n. 1, 2008;
  • ID., (2014) Minimalism and the acquisition of Functional Categories in Italian EFL Classes;
  • Nation I.P. (2001) Learning vocabulary in another language Cambridge University Press;
  • Plag I. (2003) Word formation in English;
  • Potter M.C, So K., Von Eckardt B, Feldaman L.B. (1984) Lexical and Conceptual  Representation in Beginning and Proficient Bilinguals. Journal of verbal learning and verbal behaviour 23,23-38;
  • Robinson P. (199) Cognition and second language instruction Comparing and Contrasting First and Second Language Acquisition: Implications for Language Teachers;
  • Scianna C. Parole non dette (pp.13-27);
  • Sompong M. (2014) Error Analysis Vol 16, No.2 pp, 109-127;
  • Tarone E. (2006) Intelanguage (Sl);
  • Tomasello, M. (2009). The usage-based theory of language acquisition. In Edith L. Bavin (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of child language (pp. 69-87). Cambridge: Cambridge Univ;
  • Touchie H.Y. (1986) Second language learning errors their types, causes and treatment. JALT    Journal, Volume 8, No,1, Wang X. (s.d.) Exploring the native transfer on English learning;
  • Yang C.D. (2000)  Knowledge and Learning in Natural Language;
  • Zascerinska J. (2010) Language acquisition and language learning: developing the system of  external and internal perspective;

Francesca Marchetti

Relatore

Prof.re Stefano Mochi

Roma, 23/03/2017

7 commenti su “Lexical error in E.F.L.: a cross linguistic study

  1. This is very fascinating, You are an excessively skilled blogger. I have joined your rss feed and look forward to seeking more of your fantastic post. Additionally, I have shared your site in my social networks

  2. We stumbled over here coming from a different web address and thought I should check things out. I like what I see so now i am following you. Look forward to going over your web page again.

  3. It’ѕ actually a great and helⲣfuⅼ piece of information. I am happy that you
    jᥙst shared this սseful info with us. Please stay us inf᧐гmed
    like this. Thank you for shaгing.

Lascia un commento

Il tuo indirizzo email non sarà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *

Articoli correlati

Inizia a scrivere il termine ricerca qua sopra e premi invio per iniziare la ricerca. Premi ESC per annullare.

Torna in alto